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Subgroups in US Amateur Radio - Technician (Element 2, 2022-2026)

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T1APurpose and permissible use of the Amateur Radio Service; Operator/primary station license grant; Meanings of basic terms used in FCC rules; Interference; RACES rules; Phonetics; Frequency Coordinator
T1BFrequency allocations; Emission modes; Spectrum sharing; Transmissions near band edges; Contacting the International Space Station; Power output
T1CLicensing: classes, sequential and vanity call sign systems, places where the Amateur Radio Service is regulated by the FCC, name and address on FCC license database, term, renewal, grace period, maintaining mailing address; International communications
T1DAuthorized and prohibited transmissions: communications with other countries, music, exchange of information with other services, indecent language, compensation for operating, retransmission of other amateur signals, encryption, sale of equipment, unidentified transmissions, one-way transmission
T1EControl operator: eligibility, designating, privileges, duties, location, required; Control point; Control types: automatic, remote
T1FStation identification; Repeaters; Third party communications; Club stations; FCC inspection
T2AStation operation: choosing an operating frequency, calling another station, test transmissions; Band plans: calling frequencies, repeater offsets
T2BVHF/UHF operating practices: FM repeater, simplex, reverse splits; Access tones: CTCSS, DTMF; DMR operation; Resolving operational problems; Q signals
T2CPublic service: emergency operations, applicability of FCC rules, RACES and ARES, net and traffic procedures, operating restrictions during emergencies, use of phonetics in message handling
T3ARadio wave characteristics: how a radio signal travels, fading, multipath, polarization, wavelength vs absorption; Antenna orientation
T3BElectromagnetic wave properties: wavelength vs frequency, nature and velocity of electromagnetic waves, relationship of wavelength and frequency; Electromagnetic spectrum definitions: UHF, VHF, HF
T3CPropagation modes: sporadic E, meteor scatter, auroral propagation, tropospheric ducting; F region skip; Line of sight and radio horizon
T4AStation setup: connecting a microphone, a power source, a computer, digital equipment, an SWR meter; bonding; Mobile radio installation
T4BOperating controls: frequency tuning, use of filters, squelch function, AGC, memory channels, noise blanker, microphone gain, receiver incremental tuning (RIT), bandwidth selection, digital transceiver configuration
T5ACurrent and voltage: terminology and units, conductors and insulators, alternating and direct current
T5BMath for electronics: conversion of electrical units, decibels
T5CCapacitance and inductance terminology and units; Radio frequency definition and units; Impedance definition and units; Calculating power
T5DOhm's Law; Series and parallel circuits
T6AFixed and variable resistors; Capacitors; Inductors; Fuses; Switches; Batteries
T6BSemiconductors: basic principles and applications of solid state devices, diodes and transistors
T6CCircuit diagrams: use of schematics, basic structure; Schematic symbols of basic components
T6DComponent functions: rectifiers, relays, voltage regulators, meters, indicators, integrated circuits, transformers; Resonant circuit; Shielding
T7AStation equipment: receivers, transceivers, transmitter amplifiers, receive amplifiers, transverters; Basic radio circuit concepts and terminology: sensitivity, selectivity, mixers, oscillators, PTT, modulation
T7BSymptoms, causes, and cures of common transmitter and receiver problems: overload and overdrive, distortion, interference and consumer electronics, RF feedback
T7CAntenna and transmission line measurements and troubleshooting: measuring SWR, effects of high SWR, causes of feed line failures; Basic coaxial cable characteristics; Use of dummy loads when testing
T7DUsing basic test instruments: voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter; Soldering
T8ABasic characteristics of FM and SSB; Bandwidth of various modulation modes: CW, SSB, FM, fast-scan TV; Choice of emission type: selection of USB vs LSB, use of SSB for weak signal work, use of FM for VHF packet and repeaters
T8BAmateur satellite operation: Doppler shift, basic orbits, operating protocols, modulation mode selection, transmitter power considerations, telemetry and telecommand, satellite tracking programs, beacons, uplink and downlink mode definitions, spin fading, definition of “LEO”, setting uplink power
T8COperating activities: radio direction finding, contests, linking over the internet, exchanging grid locators
T8DNon-voice and digital communications: image signals and definition of NTSC, CW, packet radio, PSK, APRS, error detection and correction, amateur radio networking, Digital Mobile Radio, WSJT modes, Broadband-Hamnet
T9AAntennas: vertical and horizontal polarization, concept of antenna gain, definition and types of beam antennas, antenna loading, common portable and mobile antennas, relationships between resonant length and frequency, dipole pattern
T9BFeed lines: types, attenuation vs frequency, selecting; SWR concepts; Antenna tuners (couplers); RF Connectors: selecting, weather protection
Subelement T0SAFETY
T0APower circuits and hazards: hazardous voltages, fuses and circuit breakers, grounding, electrical code compliance; Lightning protection; Battery safety
T0BAntenna safety: tower safety and grounding, installing antennas, antenna supports
T0CRF hazards: radiation exposure, proximity to antennas, recognized safe power levels, radiation types, duty cycle