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Subgroups in US Amateur Radio - Amateur Extra (Element 4, 2016-2020)

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Subelement E1Commission's Rules
E1AOperating Standards: frequency privileges; emission standards; automatic message forwarding; frequency sharing; stations aboard ships or aircraft
E1BStation restrictions and special operations: restrictions on station location; general operating restrictions, spurious emissions, control operator reimbursement; antenna structure restrictions; RACES operations; national quiet zone
E1CDefinitions and restrictions pertaining to local, automatic and remote control operation; control operator responsibilities for remote and automatically controlled stations; IARP and CEPT licenses; third party communications over automatically controlled stations
E1DAmateur satellites: definitions and purpose; license requirements for space stations; available frequencies and bands; telecommand and telemetry operations; restrictions, and special provisions; notification requirements
E1EVolunteer examiner program: definitions; qualifications; preparation and administration of exams; accreditation; question pools; documentation requirements
E1FMiscellaneous rules: external RF power amplifiers; business communications; compensated communications; spread spectrum; auxiliary stations; reciprocal operating privileges; special temporary authority
Subelement E2Operating Procedures
E2AAmateur radio in space: amateur satellites; orbital mechanics; frequencies and modes; satellite hardware; satellite operations; experimental telemetry applications
E2BTelevision practices: fast scan television standards and techniques; slow scan television standards and techniques
E2COperating methods: contest and DX operating; remote operation techniques; Cabrillo format; QSLing; RF network connected systems
E2DOperating methods: VHF and UHF digital modes and procedures; APRS; EME procedures, meteor scatter procedures
E2EOperating methods: operating HF digital modes
Subelement E3Radio Wave Propagation
E3AElectromagnetic waves; Earth-Moon-Earth communications; meteor scatter; microwave tropospheric and scatter propagation; aurora propagation
E3BTransequatorial propagation; long path; gray-line; multi-path; ordinary and extraordinary waves; chordal hop, sporadic E mechanisms
E3CRadio-path horizon; less common propagation modes; propagation prediction techniques and modeling; space weather parameters and amateur radio
Subelement E4Amateur Practices
E4ATest equipment: analog and digital instruments; spectrum and network analyzers, antenna analyzers; oscilloscopes; RF measurements; computer aided measurements
E4BMeasurement technique and limitations: instrument accuracy and performance limitations; probes; techniques to minimize errors; measurement of "Q"; instrument calibration; S parameters; vector network analyzers
E4CReceiver performance characteristics, phase noise, noise floor, image rejection, MDS, signal-to-noise-ratio; selectivity; effects of SDR receiver non-linearity
E4DReceiver performance characteristics: blocking dynamic range; intermodulation and cross-modulation interference; 3rd order intercept; desensitization; preselector
E4ENoise suppression: system noise; electrical appliance noise; line noise; locating noise sources; DSP noise reduction; noise blankers; grounding for signals
Subelement E5Electrical Principles
E5AResonance and Q: characteristics of resonant circuits: series and parallel resonance; definitions and effects of Q; half-power bandwidth; phase relationships in reactive circuits
E5BTime constants and phase relationships: RLC time constants; definition; time constants in RL and RC circuits; phase angle between voltage and current; phase angles of series RLC; phase angle of inductance vs susceptance; admittance and susceptance
E5CCoordinate systems and phasors in electronics: Rectangular Coordinates; Polar Coordinates; Phasors
E5DAC and RF energy in real circuits: skin effect; electrostatic and electromagnetic fields; reactive power; power factor; electrical length of conductors at UHF and microwave frequencies
Subelement E6Circuit Components
E6ASemiconductor materials and devices: semiconductor materials; germanium, silicon, P-type, N-type; transistor types: NPN, PNP, junction, field-effect transistors: enhancement mode; depletion mode; MOS; CMOS; N-channel; P-channel
E6CDigital ICs: Families of digital ICs; gates; Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs)
E6DToroidal and Solenoidal Inductors: permeability, core material, selecting, winding; transformers; Piezoelectric devices
E6EAnalog ICs: MMICs, CCDs, Device packages
E6FOptical components: photoconductive principles and effects, photovoltaic systems, optical couplers, optical sensors, and optoisolators; LCDs
Subelement E7Practical Circuits
E7ADigital circuits: digital circuit principles and logic circuits: classes of logic elements; positive and negative logic; frequency dividers; truth tables
E7BAmplifiers: Class of operation; vacuum tube and solid-state circuits; distortion and intermodulation; spurious and parasitic suppression; microwave amplifiers; switching-type amplifiers
E7CFilters and matching networks: types of networks; types of filters; filter applications; filter characteristics; impedance matching; DSP filtering
E7DPower supplies and voltage regulators; Solar array charge controllers
E7EModulation and demodulation: reactance, phase and balanced modulators; detectors; mixer stages
E7FDSP filtering and other operations; Software Defined Radio Fundamentals; DSP modulation and demodulation
E7GActive filters and op-amp circuits: active audio filters; characteristics; basic circuit design; operational amplifiers
E7HOscillators and signal sources: types of oscillators; synthesizers and phase-locked loops; direct digital synthesizers; stabilizing thermal drift; microphonics; high accuracy oscillators
Subelement E8Signals and Emissions
E8AAC waveforms: sine, square, sawtooth and irregular waveforms; AC measurements; average and PEP of RF signals; Fourier analysis; Analog to digital conversion: Digital to Analog conversion
E8BModulation and demodulation: modulation methods; modulation index and deviation ratio; frequency and time division multiplexing; Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
E8CDigital signals: digital communication modes; information rate vs bandwidth; error correction
E8DKeying defects and overmodulation of digital signals; digital codes; spread spectrum
Subelement E9Antennas and Transmission Lines
E9ABasic Antenna parameters: radiation resistance, gain, beamwidth, efficiency, beamwidth; effective radiated power, polarization
E9BAntenna patterns: E and H plane patterns; gain as a function of pattern; antenna design
E9CWire and phased array antennas: rhombic antennas; effects of ground reflections; e-off angles; Practical wire antennas: Zepps, OCFD, loops
E9DDirectional antennas: gain; Yagi Antennas; losses; SWR bandwidth; antenna efficiency; shortened and mobile antennas; RF Grounding
E9EMatching: matching antennas to feed lines; phasing lines; power dividers
E9FTransmission lines: characteristics of open and shorted feed lines; 1/8 wavelength; 1/4 wavelength; 1/2 wavelength; feed lines: coax versus open-wire; velocity factor; electrical length; coaxial cable dielectrics; velocity factor
E9GThe Smith chart
E9HReceiving Antennas: radio direction finding antennas; Beverage Antennas; specialized receiving antennas; longwire receiving antennas
Subelement E0Safety
E0ASafety: amateur radio safety practices; RF radiation hazards; hazardous materials; grounding